Career Aspirations

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While children are growing up, they are becoming bombarded with different types of images from the media, advertising outlets, as well as the people in their lives that influence their thoughts and actions. Junk and Armstrong referenced in 2010, “Choosing a career is a complex developmental process that begins in childhood as individuals learn about the range of available career options.” (Gottfredson, 1981). Children are influenced from the very start about ideas of certain positions in genders.

It seems that more conventional type of careers are chosen by men, as studies have shown in the past. Also, women have been shown to take on more artistic career types. (Agak, 2001). Though, women are becoming more of an influence in leadership positions. It is not unusual today that women take on positions of authority. As these positions have been maintained in mens choices, I would say a position is given to whoever fulfills the requirements best, disregarding gender aspects. At least, this is how businesses and organizations should be, but sometimes this can cause issues. For example, in corporations sometimes people of specific positions are given the opportunity of another significant position, but they may not even qualify for that position. They may not even have the actual skills and expertise required for that position. Someone of lesser hierarchy may qualify completely for the position, but because they are lower in the end of the hierarchy, they are not gifted this opportunity. This is an unfortunate aspect that can happen in many different companies or corporations.

“Early on the path to many careers, men and women-indeed, even boys and girls-begin to differentially commit themselves to activities that are career relevant.” (Correll, 2004). Since they differentiate themselves as they grow up, it creates and maintains the gender differences in all types of jobs. This is something that needs to be addressed in all companies. Not only in companies, but this should be explained about to younger generations as they are growing up so that they are aware of the cultural differences needed for companies to be as successful and well-rounded as possible. Any one is able to take any type of position desired. It’s unusual for a women to be a construction worker, at least most people think. But then when someone sees a women on the highway doing construction work, they are acknowledged more than men.

“Gender status beliefs evoke a gender-differentiated double standard for attributing performance to ability, which differentially biases the way men and women assess their own competence at tasks that are career relevant, controlling for actual ability.” (Correll, 2004). Unfortunately, the differences in gender career aspirations have a big factor in the overall culture of different companies, organizations, and communities. It is important to include the most diverse cultural features possible in all types of communities. To put images in young generations’ minds can defect the much-needed cultural differences in future companies and organizations.

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Agak, J. (2001). Career aspirations and career development barriers of adolescents in kisumu municipality, Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 2(5): 320-324.
Correll, S. J. (2004). Constraints into preferences: Gender, status, and emerging career aspirations. American Sociological Review, 69(1), 93-113.
Junk, K.E. & Armstrong, P.I. (2010). Stability of career aspirations: a longitudinal test of Gottfredson’s theory. Journal of Career Development, 37(3), 579-598.


Health in PR

          Health should be a great concern within the world of PR. “PR can be an effective and cost-effective component of the marketing mix, one that is able to convey meaningful medical information to key audiences.” (Tillet, 2004). Sometimes, although advertising can help create greater awareness and make things known to the public, it can also have an effect on our health if they are the same commercial messages over and over.

            PR is able to provide the messages able to convey what they want the target audiences to know. “So why isn’t PR taken more seriously as part of the marketing mix? Because PR professionals need to demonstrate their ability to move consumers down the critical path, from disease and risk awareness to treatment awareness and action.” (Tillet, 2004). Sometimes this can be a difficult task to accomplish for a PR professional. It takes quite a bit of strategic planning and evaluating before and after implementing a strategy.

            “There was little focus on marketing by Health Care Providers before the mid 1900’s because they did not realized the need for it.” (Gbadeyan, 2010). As marketing become more and more well-known to all different types of companies and organizations, health care providers started to accommodate marketing into their organization. Marketing for a health care provider became a very important aspect to marketers. It also began to require more specialized talent in a person’s actions.

            “Hospital Marketers now required special skills about Patient confidentiality and Privacy Act, Community and Health Care Administration, Knowledge of how Profit and Non Profit Hospital operate, Hospital funding, developing an efficient Hospital Media Relations and manage Hospital Publications and Special events. ” (Gbadeyan, 2010). Having a PR department in a hospital can provide a better overall message for the company itself. It helps keep the hospital organized and better able to communicate with one another as well as the outside world.

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Gbadeyan, R. A. (2010). Health care marketing and public relations in not for profit hospitals in nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(7), 117-125. Retrieved from

Tillet, R. (2004). PR view. Medical Marketing and Media, 39(7), 28. Retrieved from  9473

Crisis Communication in PR

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               Crisis communication within public relations can be referred to as a sub-specialty. When a crisis, or detrimental situation happens to an organization or company, public relations professionals are responsible for protecting and defending that individual, company, or organization. In order to deal with problems, professional PR people have to be well-versed in solving problems strategically and executing the fix in the most proper manner. They have to make sure each member within the team communicates their part in detail to the whole team, as well as understanding each other’s jobs throughout the plan.

            “An organization’s reputation is as important as any other corporate asset, and many organizations have some kind of crisis plan intended to protect that reputation should something go wrong. This is when effective management of information (controlling communications) is so vital – and always difficult.” (Ashcroft, 1997). As I mentioned, the communication is essential in producing management that will be effective and as efficient as possible. The company/organization’s brand reputation is a very important part to their overall mission. Each organization has specific wants and needs in order to convey their brand image in a unique and identifiable way.

            Problems occur within a company and/or organization pretty frequently. They are dealt with in the most effective way possible to better the situation. ” Crises represent serious threats to the most fundamental goals of an organization and its stakeholders. These events are unexpected and sometimes unpredictable.” (Fatima, 2013). A crisis can be much more harmful to a company or organization. One crisis could damage the reputation significantly. If there are very little resources available to fix the situation, it can become even more damaging.

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Ashcroft, L. S. (1997). Crisis management – public relations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12(5), 325-332. Retrieved from 

Fatima Oliveira, M. (2013). Multicultural Environments and Their Challenges to Crisis CommunicationJournal of Business Communication, 50: 253-277. Retrieved from doi:10.1177/0021943613487070

Ethics in Public Relations

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          Ethics in public relations, as any other profession, should be considered very carefully by all specialists. Things have to be done properly and honestly within all groups of employers, whether they may or may not work with the same people all the time. The public has to learn how to execute their actions in the most appropriate way possible.

            “While increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective in the field is still situational. The reason for this, at least in part, is the loss of the traditional grounds of moral objectivity—tradition, religion, and universal reason. (Leeper, 1996).  Event eight years ago, challenges were appearing within peoples ethical analyses of their own and others morals. In public relations, honesty is the number one priority in everything a person does. Well, at least it should be your number one priority.  

            “It’s all about public trust. Public trust involves professional practitioners, the fields we practice in and the domains-the institutions that legitimize our work, that provide the codes of ethics, technical standards, and personal values that we uphold.” (Atkin, 2003). If you are always being the most honest you can be, at all times, then people are more likely to trust in your decisions. If you are able to maintain this type of relationship between co-workers, the practice becomes second nature and keeps consistent a set of ethics.

            Ethics in public relations could have issues in all sorts of areas. For example, in sports there can be ethical issues in judging a sports contest. Ethics and morals occur in governmental issues, sales revenue, choosing and assessing information, legislation and policy issues, and many other subjects. “The Federal Bureau of Investigation said “there were perhaps tens of millions in bribes and hundreds of millions in lost revenue.” (Atkin, 2003). This statement seems a bit absurd. There were “perhaps” millions of bribes? People are being unethical when they let things slide by as if doing immoral actions will not have any effect on future outcomes. I think that for this to happen, it is sad to see first off, and also makes me wonder where society will be in future decades.

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Atkin, N. (2003). Ethics and public relations from an assessment perspective. Assessment             Journal, 10(1), 41-51. Retrieved from

Leeper, R.V.  (01/01/1996).  Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas’s Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.  Public relations review. ,  22 (2), p. 133 – 50.

Public Relations Reflection

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I reflect upon public relations as the idea of networking and getting ideas, thoughts, comments, suggestions, and more out in the open; where people can then analyze and prioritize among them. I think it includes many factors, from using social media outlets, to analyzing statistical information, and maintaining a specific image to others or the world. I believe public relations has a wide variety of many different positions. So, to try and define it in one sentence is a bit difficult unless you have a specific department (so-to-speak) to consider.

I think that public relations can be thought of as a reputation. The overall image of a company or organization is essentially how they represent their brand. It is similar to “picking a personality” of a celebrity, or figure to relate that to the tone of the brand.  Public relations is being able to maintain a certain image or idea/personality, and living up to its standards. I think that it comes in many different forms.  Because there is so much to public relations, it is critical that all parts of the company/organization are all on the same page. They must be working together to be able to create and sustain the important factors that make up their organization as a whole. I believe if things are executed correctly, brands can uphold their image/personality to the public.

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Diversity in PR

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          I believe that diversity is completely essential to have a strong foundation in companies and organizations within their public relations. Not to mention, we are in the one country that was built on diverse standards. To think that we WOULDN’T need or that we SHOULDN’T have diversity in our relations between companies, as well as within our own companies, is completely foolish.

, “Do You Really Need a Diverse Staff to Provide Media or Community Outreach to Specific Racial Ethnic Groups?”, states that “By 2050, these three ethnic groups will be in the majority of US residents, representing 55 percent of the U.S. American population.” (Sánchez-De Alba, 2005). The three ethnic groups were African-American, Latino, and Asian-Pacific-American.

In PR Daily, they say, “…its mission remains the same: to promote a workforce that more closely mirrors the communities in which we live and work in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and gender.” (Tindall, 2010). I believe this to be true. You cannot have an attainable workplace if you don’t have perspectives from all different backgrounds. Schools continually embed ‘critical thinking’ in your head. Well, if you have to think critically, you have to think from all sorts of paths and directions, as well as additional branches off of the first paths- if you’re still with me. All in all, you need the views of all different people to take place first, then branch out from there.

“For example, anti-slavery associations used emotional appeals and testimonials to convince audiences about the evils of slavery.” (Tindall, 2010). Within this situation, I think a majority of people can agree that testimonials would really make you think twice. To have a work environment that is healthy, manageable, and enjoyable is ideal. I believe the only way a company or organization can read those standards is to have a good amount of diversity in their daily environment.

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N. Tindall, (February 7, 2012). Diversity in the PR field: Some Progress, though challenges persist.

V. Sánchez-De Alba (2005). Do You Really Need a Diverse Staff to Provide Media or Community Outreach to Specific Racial Ethnic Groups?